Educated at St. Stephens College, Delhi University; a BA (Hon), MA in Economics (First Division). Joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1960; served for 35 years, retiring in 1995. Foreign languages: Chinese and French.
His Service career divides into two clear segments: the first 15 years were spent in and working on China from the Ministry of External Affairs, first learning the language, followed by two assignments in Beijing, and two spells of working on the China and East Asia desks at the Ministry of External Affairs. The only break in this pattern was 3-years spent in Geneva working on multilateral diplomacy, and in Delhi, working for almost two years in the territorial division dealing with neighbors, Bhutan and Nepal.
In 1975, his career took a turn, assigned as Ambassador to Algeria. Of the next 20 years, he spent 17 overseas, as Ambassador or High Commissioner to Czechoslovakia, Kenya, (and Consul General, San Francisco, 1986-89), and then to Mauritius, and Germany. In 1981-83 he served as a Joint Secretary in Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s Office for a year, and directly after that, headed personnel administration in the Ministry of External Affairs. He handled multilateral diplomacy in two spells, as a first secretary at the Indian mission at Geneva (1967-70), and as permanent representative to UNEP and Habitat, Nairobi, (concurrently High Commissioner in Kenya, 1984-86).
Retired in 1995; initially engaged as a free-lance business advisor 1995-99. Worked as a part-time adviser to a South East Asian tourism promotion body, a London-based merchant bank, and a German management consultancy company, and also advised several Indian companies. Since 2000 he has focused on teaching and writing: currently Professor Emeritus & part-time e-learning teaching faculty member, DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva, he has developed five training courses which are delivered annually through distance teaching at the MA level. Supervised about 20 MA dissertations for a degree awarded through DiploFoundation, by the University of Malta. Other activities: Commonwealth Adviser to the Namibia Foreign Ministry (2000-01); Emeritus Fellow, Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi, also book review editor of the Institute’s flagship publication China Report; Archives By-Fellow, Churchill College, Cambridge, 2004; Public Policy Scholar, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC, 2005; Distinguished Fellow, Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Kuala Lumpur; guest faculty, Diplomatic Academy, Vienna, 2011-18 (delivering a six-lecture module); short-term Commonwealth consultant, Botswana Foreign Ministry, 2012. He has developed distance training courses for the Canadian and British foreign ministries; lectured on diplomacy related subjects in about 30 foreign countries, at universities and at training institutions run by foreign ministries. Also lectured and developed several training courses at the Indian Foreign Service Institute, New Delhi, 1995-2008; professor emeritus at this FSI from 2001 to 2008.
Distance learning courses offered at DiploFoundation, the South African Department of Foreign Affairs, UAE Foreign Ministry and elsewhere:
- Bilateral Diplomacy
- 21st Century Diplomacy
- Public Diplomacy
- Consular and Diaspora Diplomacy
- Economic Diplomacy
Lectured at ambassador conferences held in Bahrain, Botswana, Kenya and Namibia, and at a meeting of deans of diplomatic training of the ‘ASEAN Plus Three’ group, at Malaysia in 2005.
Manas Publications: New Delhi, 2000;
(revised paperback edition August, 2002).
|Managing Corporate Culture: Leveraging Diversity to give India a Global Competitive Edge, (with Karl Ulrich and R.S. Chaudhry);
Macmillan India: New Delhi, 2000; (won First Prize, the Indian Society for Training & Development, New Delhi, Jan. 2001).
|Bilateral Diplomacy, DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva, 2002. (South Asian edition, Manas, New Delhi, 2002; Chinese translation: Peking University Press, 2005).|
|The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive
DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva, 2004.
(South Asian edition: Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005; Chinese translation, Peking University Press, 2007).
|Performance Management in Foreign Ministries: Corporate Techniques in the Diplomatic Services (‘Studies in Diplomacy’ series of papers, Clingendael, July 2004)|
|Asian Diplomacy: The Foreign Ministries of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Thailand
(DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva, 2007; South Asian edition, OUP, New Delhi, 2008; US edition, John Hopkins University, 2009).
|Co-editor, Foreign Ministries: Managing Diplomatic Networks and Delivering Value,
(DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva, 2007).
|Co-editor, Economic Diplomacy: India’s Experience,
(CUTS, Jaipur, 2011).
|Diplomacy for the 21st Century: A Practitioner’s Guide (Continuum, New York, 2011).|
|Co-author, India’s North-East States, the BCIM Forum and Regional Integration,
(Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi, 2012).
|Co-editor, special issue, ‘Economic Diplomacy and Emerging and Developing Countries’, International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy, Vol. 1 Issue 3 & 4, 2013.|
|The Contemporary Embassy: Paths to Diplomatic Excellence,
(Palgrave-Macmillan, UK, 2013).
|Diplomacy at the Cutting Edge, (Manas, New Delhi, 2015).|
|Co-editor, special issue, China Report, Vol. 53 Issue 2, March 2017.|
- ‘A Design to Excel’, Business India, Mumbai, 1 January 1996.
- ‘New Face of Diplomacy: An Expanding Role’. Indian Express, New Delhi, February 9, 1996.
- ‘The Missing Spark’ Business Standard, New Delhi, 10 February 1996.
- ‘Shaping a Workforce’ Business India, Mumbai, 20 May 1996.
- ‘Technical Training: A Perspective’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 9 July 1997.
- ‘Export or Perish’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 21 July 1997.
- ‘Promoting India’s Economic Interests Abroad: The Main Tasks Ahead’, eds. Lalit Mansingh, et al, Indian Foreign Policy: Agenda for the 21st Century, Vol. I, (Konark, Delhi, 1997), pp. 222-33.
- ‘Restructuring the MEA’, eds. Lalit Mansingh, et al, Indian Foreign Policy: Agenda for the 21st Century, Vol. I, (Konark, Delhi, 1997), pp. 431-45.
- ‘Memories of a Young Indian Diplomat in China in the 1960s and the 1970s’, Across the Himalayan Gap: An Indian Quest for Understanding China, (Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts, New Delhi, 1998).
- ‘Adopt The German Model’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 13 April 1997.
- Three article series on Algeria: ‘Seeds of a Crisis’, ‘Goods and Good Relations’, ‘Fundamental Facts’, Asian Age, New Delhi, 17-19 February 1999.
- ‘Berlin: From Reich to Republic’ The Telegraph, Kolkata, 26 August 1999.
- ‘Indian Diplomacy’, World Focus, New Delhi, October 1999.
- ‘Need to Strengthen Relations in South Asia’, India Abroad, New York, 7 January 2000.
- ‘Revisiting China: An Indian Diplomat’s Impressions of China, Which is on the Fast Track of Transformation’, (article and photo essay), Frontline, Chennai, 4 February 2000.
- ‘Modernising The Delivery System For Foreign Policy’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 22 August 2000.
- ‘The Media, Public Opinion and Diplomacy’ Business Standard, August 2001.
- ‘Terrorism: Beyond Manhattan’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 14 September 2001.
- ‘Ke”EP” up the good work’ Business Standard, New Delhi, 20 August, 2002.
- ‘Inside The Indian Foreign Service’, Foreign Service Journal, Washington DC, October, 2002.
- ‘Island Diplomacy’, Indian Express, New Delhi, 7 June 2003.
- ‘E-Learning’s Different, But it Works’ Business Standard, New Delhi, 10 March 2004.
- ‘Public Diplomacy and India’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 8 May 2004.
- ‘Beijing Diary’, Outlook, New Delhi, 5 July 2004.
- Performance Management in Foreign Ministries: Corporate Techniques in the Diplomatic Services (‘Studies in Diplomacy’ series of papers, Clingendael, July 2004) [https://www.clingendael.nl/cli/publ/diplomacy/pdf/issue93.pdf ]
- ‘Economic Diplomacy in India: A Practitioner’s Perspective’, International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 5 (2004), pp. 66-70.
- ‘Navel gazing at the foreign office’, Business Standard, New Delhi, 21 January, 2005.
- ‘E-Learning for Diplomats’, Foreign Service Journal, Washington DC, Vol. 82, No. 7, July-August 2005.
- ‘The Structure and Operation of China’s Diplomatic System’, China Report, 41:3, 2005.
- ‘Singapore’s Diplomacy: Vulnerability into Strength’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, vol.1 no.1 (2006), pp.81-106.
- ‘Diplomatic Training: Options and Opportunities’, ‘The Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations’, Kuala Lumpur, Vol. 8, No. 2 December 2006.
- ‘Mastering Commercial Diplomacy’, Business Line, Chennai, 10 February 2007.
- ‘The Asian Dimension’, ‘Envisioning Asia’ issue, Seminar, New Delhi, Issue 573, June 2007, New Delhi, pp. 24-32,
- ‘Representing India in the Diplomatic Corps’, The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society, eds. Paul Sharp and Geoffrey Wiseman, (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2007), pp. 125-42.
- ‘Economic Diplomacy: The Experience of Developing Countries’, The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision Making and Negotiations in International Relations, eds. Nicholas Bayne and Stephen Woolcock, (Ashgate, London, 2nd Edition, 2007), pp. 201-20.
- ‘Diplomatic Education’, published as Chapter 11 in: An Anthology Celebrating the Twentieth Anniversary of the Higher Colleges of Technology, ed. Tayeb A Kamali, (HCT Press, UAE, 2007).
- ‘Role of Diplomacy in Managing the Movement of People’, Indian Foreign Affairs Journal, New Delhi, January, 2008
- ‘Such a Long Journey’, Business Standard, 17 February 2008.
- ‘Regional Diplomacy and India-China Economic Relations’, China Report, New Delhi, 44:3 (2008)
- ‘Women in the Indian Foreign Service: Gender Equality’, Indian Foreign Affairs Journal, New Delhi, October 2008.
- ‘Building Relations Through Multi-Dialogue Formats: Trends in Bilateral Diplomacy’, Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Kuala Lumpur, Vol. 10, No. 1 December 2008.
- ‘MEA’s institutional software – A US prognosis’, Business Standard, 23 July 2009.
- ‘India’s Diaspora Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, vol.4 no.3 (2009), pp.361-372.
- The Strategic Impact of a Rising India: Prospects and Challenges, The Asia Pacific Roundtable Series, Kuala Lumpur, 2009.
- ‘Beyond Diplomacy 101’, Business Standard, 25 December 2010.
- ‘Resetting India’s Public Diplomacy’ Business Standard, 16 January 2011.
- ‘Serving the Private Sector: India’s Experience in Context’, The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations, Bayne and Woolcock, 3rd edition, (Ashgate, London, 2012).
- ‘Sub-Regional Diplomacy: An Imperative of Our Time’, ICSSR-NERC Conference on ‘India’s Look East Policy and the North-Eastern Region: Strengthening the Continental Route.’ Shillong, 21-22 March, 2012.
- ‘India’s Economic Diplomacy’, (to be published in a Lexicon of Economic Diplomacy and International Business, by the Institute of Economic Diplomacy, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012).
- ‘India’s Rise in Asia & Some Thoughts on Strategic Decision-Making’, to be published by the South Asia Institute, Chengdu, Sichuan University in their publication on a September 2012 conference on ‘Asian Diplomacy and India’.
- Three article series: ‘Battle Lines of the 1962 War’, 17 September; ‘A message for Mr. Nehru’s ears only’, 20 October; ‘The 1962 war – Where did India go wrong?’, 31 October, 2012 Business Standard.
- ‘China – At the crossroads’, 9 November 2012, Business Standard.
- ‘India-China Cooperation: Some Elements for Building Scenarios’, China-India Cooperation Prospects: Papers Presented at the 1st Academic Summit on China-India Cooperation in 2011, edited by Victor FS Sit, Enrich, Hong Kong, 2013.
- ‘Diaspora Diplomacy and Public Diplomacy’, Relational, Networked, and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift, Routledge, New York, 2013.
- ‘Foreign Visits and the Headlines’, Business Standard, 23 February 2013.
- ‘Persuasion, Trust and Personal Credibility’, Persuasion, the essence of diplomacy, Prof. Dietrich Kappeler, DiploFoundation, Malta, February 2013.
- ‘India’s Aid Diplomacy’, Business Standard, 12 May 2013.
- ‘Why Cooperation with Neighboring Countries is Vital for India’s Northeast’, Business Standard, 2 June 2013
- ‘Time for India to hit back at UK’s irrational visa barriers’, Business Standard, 1 August, 2013
- ‘How India needs better advocacy to mobilise more FDI’, Business Standard, 4 August 2013
- ‘Economic Diplomacy: What Might Best Serve a Developing Country?’ Special Issue, ‘Economic Diplomacy and Emerging and Developing Countries’, International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy, Vol.1, Issue 3-4.
- ‘The view from India’, Out of the Cold: The Cold War and Its Legacy, Michael R Fitzgerald and Allen Packwood, eds, Bloomsbury, New York, 2013.
- ‘Innovation and Bilateral Diplomacy’, The Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Vol. 13, No. 2, November 2013.
- ‘The Truth About Summits’, Business Standard, 2 March 2014, conference papers.
- ‘For the foreign ministry, a task within the country’s borders’, Business Standard, 25 May 2014.
- ‘India and China: Comparing Soft Power’, India-China Insights, June 2014.
- ‘An open letter: diplomacy with growth in mind’, Business Standard, 8 June 2014.
- ‘The power to attract’, Business Standard, 22 June 2014.
- ‘The Glass Gets Fuller’, Foreign Service Journal, Washington DC, June 2014.
- ‘Dealing with the silk route merchants’, Business Standard, 17 August, 2014
- ‘How Mr. Modi can revilaise the foreign ministry’, Business Standard, 5 October 2014.
- ‘How to brand India’, Business Standard, 16 November 2014.
- ‘Diplomacy Systems and Processes: Comparing India and China’, China Report, Vol.50-4, November 2014, pp.297-323.
- ‘A visit that enshrined diplomacy as spectacle…’ Business Standard, 1 February 2015.
- ‘A new beginning in the Indian ocean’, Business Standard, 8 March 2015.
- ‘The Silk Roads and India today’, Business Standard, 3 May 2015.
- ‘India and China: cooperation, competition or contestation?’ 17 May 2015.
- ‘Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Visit to China, May 2015’, China Report, 51:4, 2015.
- ‘Foreign Policy as a Public Good’, Policy Wonks, 17 August 2015, http://policywonks.in/commentary/foreign-policy-as-a-public-goodpolicy-as-a-public-good
- ‘Soft Power Diplomacy Will Help Strengthen India-Germany Relations’, The Quint, 6 October 2015, https://www.thequint.com/opinion/2015/10/06/soft-power-diplomacy-will-help-in-strengthening-india-germany-ties
- ‘Revisiting Civil Service Recruitment’, Business Standard, 18 October 2015.
- ‘Focus on Inherent Strength, Don’t be Distracted by China’, The Quint, 27 October 2015, https://www.thequint.com/opinion/2015/10/27/focus-on-inherent-strength-dont-be-distracted-by-china-in-africa
- ‘Exchanges among foreign ministries on diplomacy methods: Some thoughts’, The Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Kuala Lumpur, Vol. 15, No. 2, December 2015, pp. 5-16.
- ‘Getting the whole government involved in foreign affairs’ Business Standard’, 14 February 2016.
- ‘Shedding old beliefs on Pakistan, China’, Business Standard, 24 February 2016.
- ‘A diplomatic necessity: Why embassies persist in the digital age’, The Interpreter, Lowy Institute, 6 April 2016, https://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2016/04/06/A-diplomatic-necessity-Why-embassies-persist-in-the-digital-age.aspx
- ‘Serving the Private Sector: India’s Economic Diplomacy’ Chapter Six, The New Economic Diplomacy, 4th edition, ‘The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision-Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations’, Ashgate, 2016.
- ‘Some steps for India’s renewal’, Business Standard, 1 May 2016.
- ‘Economic Diplomacy: A Developing Country Perspective’, Research Handbook on Economic Diplomacy, Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, and Selwyn Moons eds. Institute of Social Studies Erasmus University and Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016.
- ‘Kautilya’, Encyclopedia on Diplomacy, Wiley, 2016.
- ‘Bilateral Diplomacy’, Encyclopedia on Diplomacy, Wiley, 2016.
- ‘India and China: Soft Power in an Asian Context’, The Routledge Handbook of Soft Power, Routledge, (publication in Nov. 2016) https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-Soft-Power/Chitty-Hayden-Ji-Rawnsley/p/book/9781138945814
In 2002 and 2003 I developed two training courses of six lectures each for the Canadian Foreign Service Institute, in a self-learning format; they covered ‘Bilateral Diplomacy’ and ‘Contemporary Diplomacy’. In 2007, a Canadian colleague, Ambassador Adriaan de Hoog, and I collaborated to develop a similar self-learning course covering ‘Multilateral Diplomacy’.
In 2008 a version of the ‘Bilateral Diplomacy’ self-learning course that had been developed jointly with DiploFoundation, was acquired by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office and adapted for its use. I worked with the FCO’s experts in producing this adaptation.
Photography has been a life-long interest, starting from my schooldays. Retirement from the foreign service did not push me towards this hobby, as much as I had hoped. Digital photography now offers wider low cost options, and the few pictures I sell for publication also provide an incentive. In 2003 I had held a photo exhibition at the India International Center, New Delhi.